Lexicon – engl

a- no, not, without (atom, agranulocyte)

ab- away (abducens, abduction)

acetabulo- small cup (acetabulum)

acro- tip, extremity, peak (acromion, acromegaly, acrosome)

ad- to, toward, near (adsorption, adrenal)

adeno- gland (lymphadenitis, adenohypophysis, adenoids)

aero- air, oxygen (aerobic, anaerobe, aerophagy)

af- toward (afferent)

ag- together (agglutination)

-al pertaining to (parietal, pharyngeal, temporal)

ala- wing (ala nasi)

albi- white (albicans, linea alba, albino)

algi- pain (analgesic, myalgia)

aliment- nourishment (alimentary, hyperalimentation)

allo- other, different (allele, allosteric)

amphi- both, either (amphiphilic, amphiarthrosis)

an- without (anaerobic, anemic)

ana- up, build up (anabolic, anaphylaxis). /. Apart (anaphase, anatomy). /. back (anastomosis)

andro- male (androgen)

angi- vessel (angiogram, angioplasty, hemangioma)

ante- before, in front (antebrachium)

antero- forward (anterior, anterograde)

anti- against (antidiuretic, antibody, antagonist)

apo- from, off, away, above (apocrine, aponeurosis)

arbor- tree (arboreal, arborization)

artic- . joint (articulation). / . speech (articulate)

-ary pertaining to (axillary, coronary)

-ase enzyme (polymerase, kinase, amylase)

ast-, astro- star (aster, astrocyte)

-ata, -ate  possessing (Chordata, corniculate). / plural of -a (stomata, carcinomata)

athero- fat (atheroma, atherosclerosis)

atrio- entryway (atrium, atrioventricular)

auri- ear (auricle, auricular)

auto- self (autolysis, autoimmune)

axi- axis, straight line (axial, axoneme, axon)

baro- pressure (baroreceptor, hyperbaric)

bene- good, well (benign, beneficial)

bi- two (bipedal, biceps, bifid)

bili- bile (biliary, bilirubin)

bio- life, living (biology, biopsy, microbial)

blasto- precursor, bud, producer (fibroblast, osteoblast, blastomere)

brachi- arm (brachium, brachialis, antebrachium)

brady- slow (bradycardia, bradypnea)

bucco- cheek (buccal, buccinator)

burso- purse (bursa, bursitis)

calc- calcium, stone (calcified, calcaneus, hypocalcemia)

callo- thick (callus, callosum)

calori- heat (calorie, calorimetry, calorigenic)

calv-, calvari- bald, skull (calvaria)

calyx cup, vessel, chalice (glycocalyx, renal calyx)

capito- head (capitis, capitate, capitulum)

capni- smoke, carbon dioxide (hypocapnia)

carcino- cancer (carcinogen, carcinoma)

cardi- heart (cardiac, cardiology, pericardium)

carot-  carrot (carotene). / stupor (carotid)

carpo- wrist, seize (carpus, metacarpal)

case- cheese (caseosa, casein)

cata- down, break down (catabolism)

cauda- tail (cauda equina, caudate nucleus)

-cel little (pedicel)

celi- belly, abdomen (celiac)

centri- center, middle (centromere, centriole)

cephalo- head (cephalic, encephalitis)

cervi- neck, narrow part (cervix, cervical)

chiasm- cross, X (optic chiasm)

choano- funnel (choana)

chole- bile (cholecystokinin, cholelithotripsy)

chondro-  grain (mitochondria). cartilage, gristle (chondrocyte,  perichondrium)

chromo- color (dichromat, chromatin, cytochrome)

chrono- time (chronotropic, chronic)

cili- eyelash (cilium, supraciliary)

circ- about, around (circadian, circumduction)

cis- cut (incision, incisor)

cisterna- reservoir (cisterna chyli)

clast- break down, destroy (osteoclast)

clavi- hammer, club (clavicle, supraclavicular)

-cle little (tubercle, corpuscle)

cleido- clavicle (sternocleidomastoid)

cnemo- lower leg (gastrocnemius)

co- together (coenzyme, cotransport)

collo-  hill (colliculus). / glue (colloid, collagen)

contra- opposite (contralateral)

corni- horn (cornified, corniculate, cornu)

corono- crown (coronary, corona, coronal)

corpo- body (corpus luteum, corpora quadrigemina)

corti- bark, rind (cortex, cortical)

costa- rib (intercostal, subcostal)

coxa- hip (os coxae, coxal)

crani- helmet (cranium, epicranius)

cribri- sieve, strainer (cribriform, area cribrosa)

crino- separate, secrete (holocrine, endocrinology)

crista- crest (crista ampullaris, mitochondrial crista)

crito- to separate (hematocrit)

cruci- cross (cruciate ligament)

-cule, -culus small (canaliculus, trabecula, auricular)

cune- wedge (cuneiform, cuneatus)

cutane-, cuti- skin (subcutaneous, cuticle)

cysto- bladder (cystitis, cholecystectomy)

cyto- cell (cytology, cytokinesis, monocyte)

de- down (defecate, deglutition, dehydration)

demi- half (demifacet, demilune)

den-, denti- tooth (dentition, dens, dental)

dendro- tree, branch (dendrite, oligodendrocyte)

derma-, dermato- skin (ectoderm, dermatology, hypodermic)

desmo- band, bond, ligament (desmosome, syndesmosis)

dia-  across, through, separate (diaphragm, dialysis). / day (circadian)

dis- apart (dissect, dissociate). / opposite, absence (disinfect, disability)

diure- pass through, urinate (diuretic, diuresis)

dorsi- back (dorsal, dorsum, latissimus dorsi)

duc- to carry (duct, adduction, abducens)

dys- bad, abnormal, painful (dyspnea, dystrophy)

e- out (ejaculate, eversion)

-eal pertaining to (hypophyseal, arboreal)

ec-, ecto- outside, out of, external (ectopic, ectoderm, splenectomy)

ef- out of (efferent, effusion)

-el, -elle small (fontanel, organelle, micelle)

electro- electricity (electrocardiogram, electrolyte)

em- in, within (embolism, embedded)

emesi-, emeti- vomiting (emetic, hyperemesis)

-emia blood condition (anemia, hypoxemia, hypovolemia)

en- in, into (enzyme, parenchyma)

encephalo- brain (encephalitis, telencephalon)

enchymo- poured in (mesenchyme, parenchyma)

endo- within, into, internal (endocrine, endocytosis)

entero- gut, intestine (mesentery, myenteric)

epi- upon, above (epidermis, epiphysis, epididymis)

ergo- work, energy, action (allergy, adrenergic)

eryth-, erythro- red (erythema, erythrocyte)

esthesio- sensation, feeling (anesthesia, somesthetic)

eu- good, true, normal, easy (eukaryote, eupnea, aneuploidy)

exo- out (exopeptidase, exocytosis, exocrine)

facili- easy (facilitated)

fasci- band, bundle (fascia, fascicle)

fenestr- window (fenestrated, fenestra vestibuli)

fer- to carry (efferent, uriniferous)

ferri- iron (ferritin, transferrin)

fibro- fiber (fibroblast, fibrosis)

fili- thread (myofilament, filiform)

flagello- whip (flagellum)

foli- leaf (folic acid, folia)

-form shape (cuneiform, fusiform)

fove- pit, depression (fovea)

funiculo- little rope, cord (funiculus)

fusi-  spindle (fusiform). / pour out (perfusion)

gamo- marriage, union (monogamy, gamete)

gastro- belly, stomach (digastric, gastrointestinal)

-gen, -genic, -genesis producing, giving rise to (pathogen, carcinogenic, glycogenesis)

genio- chin (geniohyoid, genioglossus)

germi- sprout, bud (germinal, germinativum). / microbe (germicide)

gero- old age (progeria, geriatrics, gerontology)

gesto-  to bear, carry (ingest). Pregnancy (gestation, progesterone)

glia- glue (neuroglia, microglia)

globu- ball, sphere (globulin, hemoglobin)

glom- ball (glomerulus)

glosso- tongue (hypoglossal, glossopharyngeal)

glyco- sugar (glycogen, glycolysis, hypoglycemia)

gono-  angle, corner (trigone). seed, sex cell, generation (gonad, oogonium, gonorrhea)

gradi- walk, step (retrograde, gradient)

-gram recording of (sonogram, electrocardiogram)

-graph recording instrument (sonograph, electrocardiograph)

-graphy recording process (sonography, radiography)

gravi- severe, heavy (gravid, myasthenia gravis)

gyro- turn, twist (gyrus)

hallu- great toe (hallux, hallucis)

hemi- half (hemidesmosome, hemisphere, hemiazygos)

-hemia blood condition (polycythemia)

hemo- blood (hemophilia, hemoglobin, hematology)

hetero- different, other, various (heterotrophic, heterozygous)

histo- tissue, web (histology, histone)

holo- whole, entire (holistic, holocrine)

homeo- constant, unchanging, uniform (homeostasis, homeothermic)

homo- same, alike (homologous, homozygous)

hyalo- clear, glassy (hyaline, hyaluronic acid)

hydro- water (dehydration, hydrolysis, hydrophobic)

hyper- above, above normal, excessive (hyperkalemia, hypertonic)

hypo- below, below normal, deficient (hypogastric, hyponatremia, hypophysis)

-ia condition (anemia, hypocalcemia, osteomalacia)

-ic pertaining to (isotonic, hemolytic, antigenic)

-icle, -icul small (ossicle, canaliculus, reticular)

ilia- flank, loin (ilium, iliac)

-illa, -illus little (bacillus)

-in protein (trypsin, fibrin, globulin)

infra- below (infraspinous, infrared)

ino- fiber (inotropic, inositol)

insulo- island (insula, insulin)

inter- between (intercellular, intercalated, intervertebral)

intra- within (intracellular, intraocular)

iono- ion (ionotropic, cationic)

ischi- to hold back (ischium, ischemia)

-ism process, state, condition (metabolism, rheumatism). / doctrine, belief, theory (holism, reductionism, naturalism)

iso- same, equal (isometric, isotonic, isomer)

-issimus most, greatest (latissimus, longissimus)

-ite little (dendrite, somite)

-itis inflammation (dermatitis, gingivitis)

jug- to join (conjugated, jugular)

juxta- next to (juxtamedullary, juxtaglomerular)

kali- potassium (hypokalemia)

karyo- seed, nucleus (megakaryocyte, karyotype, eukaryote)

kerato- horn (keratin, keratinocyte)

kine- motion, action (kinetic, kinase, cytokinesis)

labi- lip (labium, levator labii)

lacera- torn, cut (foramen lacerum, laceration)

lacrimo- tear, cry (lacrimal gland, puncta lacrimalia)

lacto- milk (lactose, lactation, prolactin)

lamina- layer (lamina propria, laminar flow)

latero- side (bilateral, ipsilateral)

lati- broad (fascia lata, latissimus dorsi)

-lemma husk (sarcolemma, neurilemma)

lenti- lens (lentiform)

-let small (platelet)

leuko- white (leukocyte, leukemia)

levato- to raise (levator labii, elevation)

ligo- to bind (ligand, ligament)

line- line (linea alba, linea nigra)

litho- stone (otolith, lithotripsy)

-logy study of (histology, physiology, hematology)

lucid- light, clear (stratum lucidum, zona pellucida)

lun- moon, crescent (lunate, lunule, semilunar)

lute- yellow (macula lutea, corpus luteum)

lyso-, lyto- split apart, break down (lysosome, hydrolysis, electrolyte, hemolytic)

macro- large (macromolecule, macrophage)

macula- spot (macula lutea, macula sacculi, macula densa)

mali- bad (malignant, malocclusion, malformed)

malle- hammer (malleus, malleolus)

mammo- breast (mammary, Mammalia)

mano- hand (manus, manipulate)

manubri- handle (manubrium)

masto- breast (mastoid, gynecomastia)

medi- middle (medial, mediastinum, intermediate)

medullo- marrow, pith (medulla)

mega- large (megakaryocyte, hepatomegaly)

melano- black (melanin, melanocyte, melancholy)

meno- month (menstruation, menopause)

mento- chin (mental, mentalis)

mero- part, segment (isomer, centromere, merocrine)

meso- in the middle (mesoderm, mesenchyme, mesentery)

meta- beyond, next in a series (metaphase, metacarpal, metopic)

metabolo- change (metabolism, metabolite)

-meter measuring device (hemocytometer, spirometer)

metri- length, measure (isometric, emmetropic). / uterus (endometrium)

micro- small (microscopic, microcytic, microglia)

mito- thread, filament (mitochondria, mitosis)

mono- one (monocyte, monogamy, mononucleosis)

morpho- form, shape, structure (morphology, amorphous)

muta- change (mutagen, mutation)

myelo-  spinal cord (poliomyelitis, myelin). Bone marrow (myeloid, myelocytic)

myo-, mysi- muscle (myoglobin, myosin, epimysium)

natri- sodium (hyponatremia, natriuretic)

neo- new (neonatal, gluconeogenesis)

nephro- kidney (nephron, hydronephrosis, mesonephros)

neuro- nerve (aponeurosis, neurosoma, neurology)

nucleo- nucleus, kernel (nucleolus, nucleic acid)

oo- egg (oogenesis, oocyte)

ob-  life (aerobic, microbe). / against, toward, before (obstetrics, obturator, obstruction)

oculo- eye (oculi, oculomotor)

odonto- tooth (odontoblast, periodontal, heterodonty)

-oid like, resembling (colloid, sigmoid, ameboid)

-ole small (arteriole, bronchiole, nucleolus)

oligo- few, a little, scanty (oligopeptide, oligodendrocyte, oliguria)

-oma tumor, mass (carcinoma, hematoma)

omo- shoulder (omohyoid, acromion)

onycho- nail, claw (hyponychium, onychomycosis)

op- vision (optics, myopia, photopic)

-opsy viewing, to see (biopsy, rhodopsin)

or- mouth (oral, orbicularis oris)

orbi- circle (orbicularis, orbit)

organo- tool, instrument (organ, organelle)

ortho- straight (orthopnea, orthodontics, orthopedics)

-ose  full of (adipose). / sugar (sucrose, glucose)

-osis  process (osmosis, exocytosis). / condition, disease (cyanosis, thrombosis). / Increase (leukocytosis)

osmo- push (osmosis, chemiosmotic)

osse-, oste- bone (osseous, osteoporosis)

oto- ear (otolith, otitis, parotid)

-ous  full of (nitrogenous, edematous). / Pertaining to (mucous, nervous). like, characterized by (squamous, filamentous)

ovo- egg (ovum, ovary, ovulation)

oxy-  oxygen (hypoxia, oxyhemoglobin). / sharp, quick (oxytocin)

palli- pale (pallor, globus pallidus)

palpebro- eyelid (palpebrae)

pan- all (panhypopituitarism, pancreas)

panni- cloth, rag (pannus, panniculus)

papillo- nipple (papilla, papillary)

par- birth (postpartum, parturition, multiparous)

para- next to (parathyroid, parotid)

parieto- wall (parietal)

patho-  disease (pathology, pathogen). / feeling (sympathetic)

pecto-  chest (pectoral, pectoralis). / Comblike (pectineus)

pedi-  foot (bipedal, pedicle). child (pediatrics)

pelvi- basin (pelvis, pelvic)

-penia deficiency (leukopenia, thrombocytopenia)

penna- feather (unipennate, bipennate)

peri- around (periosteum, peritoneum, periodontal)

perone- fibula (peroneus tertius, peroneal nerve)

phago- eat (phagocytosis, macrophage)

philo- loving, attracted to (hydrophilic, amphiphilic)

phobo- fearing, repelled by (hydrophobic)

phor- to carry, bear (diaphoresis, electrophoresis)

phragm- partition (diaphragm)

phreno- diaphragm (phrenic nerve)

physio- nature, natural cause (physiology, physician, physics)

-physis growth (diaphysis, hypophysis)

pilo- hair (piloerection)

pino- drink, imbibe (pinocytosis)

planto- sole of foot (plantaris, plantar wart)

plasi- growth (hyperplasia)

plasm- shaped, molded (cytoplasm, endoplasmic)

plasti- form (thromboplastin)

platy- flat (platysma)

pnea- breath, breathing (eupnea, dyspnea)

pneumo- air, breath, lung (pneumonia, pneumothorax)

podo- foot (pseudopod, podocyte)

poies- forming (hemopoiesis, erythropoietin)

poly- many, much, excessive (polypeptide, polyuria)

primi- first (primary, primipara, primitive)

pro- before, in front, first (prokaryote, prophase, prostate). / promote, favor (progesterone, prolactin)

pseudo- false (pseudopod)

psycho- mind (psychosis, psychosomatic)

ptero-, pterygo- wing (pterygoid)

-ptosis dropping, falling, sagging (apoptosis, nephroptosis)

puncto- point (puncta)

pyro- fire (pyrogen)

quadri- four (quadriceps, quadratus)

quater- fourth (quaternary)

radiat- radiating (corona radiata)

rami- branch (ramus)

recto- straight (rectus abdominis, rectum)

reno- kidney (renal, renin)

reti- network (reticular, rete testis)

retinac- retainer, bracelet (retinaculum)

retro- behind, backward (retroperitoneal, retrovirus)

rhombo- rhombus (rhomboideus, rhombencephalon)

rubo-, rubro- red (bilirubin, rubrospinal)

rugo- fold, wrinkle (ruga, corrugator)

sacculo- little sac (saccule)

sarco- flesh, muscle (sarcoplasm, sarcomere)

scala- staircase (scala tympani)

sclero- hard, tough (sclera, sclerosis)

scopo- see (microscope, endoscopy)

secto- cut (section, dissection)

semi- half (semilunar)

sepsi- infection (asepsis, septicemia)

-sis process (diapedesis, amniocentesis)

sole- sandal, sole of foot, flatfish (sole, soleus)

soma-, somato- body (somatic, somatotropin)

spheno- wedge (sphenoid)

spiro- breathing (inspiration, spirometry)

splanchno- viscera (splanchnic)

spleno-  bandage (splenius capitis). Spleen (splenic artery)

squamo- scale, flat (squamous, desquamation)

stasi-, stati- put, remain, stay the same (hemostasis, homeostatic)

steno- narrow (stenosis)

ster-, stereo- solid, three-dimensional (steroid, stereoscopic)

sterno- breast, chest (sternum, sternocleidomastoid)

stria- stripe (striated, corpus striatum)

sub- below (subcutaneous, subclavicular)

sulc- furrow, groove (sulcus)

supra- above (supraspinous, supraclavicular)

sura- calf of leg (triceps surae)

sym- together (sympathetic, symphysis)

syn- together (synostosis, syncytium)

tachy- fast (tachycardia, tachypnea)

tarsi- ankle (tarsus, metatarsal)

tecto- roof, cover (tectorial membrane, tectum)

telo- last, end (telophase, telencephalon, telodendria)

tempo- time (temporal)

terti- third (tertiary)

theli- nipple, female, tender (epithelium, polythelia)

thermo- heat (thermogenesis, endothermic)

thrombo- blood clot (thrombosis, thrombin)

thyro- shield (thyroid, thyrohyoid)

-tion process (circulation, pronation)

toci- birth (oxytocin)

tomo- cut (tomography, atom, anatomy). / Segment (dermatome, myotome, sclerotome)

tono- force, tension (isotonic, tonus, myotonia)

topo- place, position (isotope, ectopic)

trabo- plate (trabecula)

trans- across (transpiration, transdermal)

trapezi- table, grinding surface (trapezium). / trapezoid (trapezius)

tri- three (triceps, triglyceride)

tricho- hair (peritrichial)

trocho- wheel, pulley (trochlea)

troph-  food, nourishment (heterotrophic, trophoblast). / growth (dystrophy, hypertrophy)

tropo- to turn, change (metabotropic, gonadotropin)

tunica- coat (tunica intima, tunica vaginalis)

tympano- drum, eardrum (tympanic, tensor tympani)

-ul small (trabecula, tubule, capitulum, glomerulus)

-uncle, -unculus small (homunculus, caruncle)

uni- one (unipennate, unipolar)

uri- urine (glycosuria, urinalysis, diuretic)

utriculo- little bag (utriculus)

vagino- sheath (invaginate, tunica vaginalis)

vago- wander (vagus)

vaso- vessel (vascular, vas deferens, vasa recta)

ventro- belly, lower part (ventral, ventricle)

vermi- worm (vermis)

vertebro- spine (vertebrae, Vertebrata)

vesico- bladder, blister (vesical, vesicular)

villo- hair, hairy (microvillus)

vitre- glass (in vitro, vitreous humor)

vivi- life, alive (in vivo, revive)

zygo- union, join, mate (zygomatic, zygote, azygos)