Physiology 6 – Cardiovascular system

During the fight, a man had a cardiac arrest due to the strong blow to the upper region of the anterior abdominal wall. Which of the following mechanisms has led to the cardiac arrest?

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A 35-year-old male developed acute heart failure while running for a long time. What changes in the ionic composition can be observed in the cardiac muscle?

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ECG of a patient displays an abnormally long R wave (up to 0,18 s). This is caused by a decrease in the conduction velocity of the following heart structures:

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During ventricular systole, the cardiac muscle does not respond to additional stimulation because it is in the phase of:

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As a result of a home injury, a patient suffered a significant blood loss, which led to a fall in blood pressure. Rapid blood pressure recovery after the blood loss is provided by the following hormones:

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A sportsman spontaneously held breath for 40 seconds,which resulted in an increase in heart rate and systemic arterial pressure. Changes of these indicators are due to activation of the following regulatory mechanisms:

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An animal experiment is aimed at studying the cardiac cycle. All the heart valves are closed. What phase of the cycle is characterized by this status?

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Experimental stimulation of the sympathetic nerve branches that innervate the heart caused an increase in force of heart contractions because the membrane of typical cardiomyocytes permitted an increase in:

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Electrocardiogram analysis demonstrates that cardiac cycle of a human equals 1 second. It means that heart rate per minute equals:

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A patient with hypertensic crisis has increased content of angiotensin II in blood. Angiotensin pressor effect is based on:

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During ventricular systole the cardiac muscle does not respond to additional stimulation because it is in the phase of:

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Electrocardiogram of a young man reveals deviation of his electrical axis of heart to the left. This phenomenon can be caused by:

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A patient complains of palpitations after stress. Pulse is 104/min., P-Q=0,12 seconds, there are no changes in QRS complex. What type of arrhythmia does the patient have?

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A patient with hypertensic crisis has increased contentof angiotensinII in blood. Angiotensin pressor effect is based on:

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In an elderly person the change in heart force and vessels physical properties were detected; they can be clearly observed on graphic recording of carotid pulse waves. What method was applied?

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A patient has insufficient blood supply to the kidneys, which caused the development of pressor effect due to the constriction of arterial resistance vessels. This is the result of the vessels being greately affected by the following substance:

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A 67-year-old patient complains of periodic heartache, dyspnea during light physical activities. ECG reveals extraordinary contractions of heart ventricles. Such arrhythmia is called:

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Investigation of an isolated cardiac myocyte determined that it does not generate excitation impulses automatically, which means this cardiac myocyte was obtained from the following cardiac structure:

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Due to blood loss the circulating blood volume of a patient decreased. How will it affect the blood pressure in this patient?

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A 16-year-old girl fainted when she tried to quickly change her position from horisontal to vertical. What caused the loss of consciousness in the girl?

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The patient’s ECG shows that in the second standard lead from the extremities the P waves are positive, their amplitude is 0,1 mV (norm is 0,05-0,25 mV), duration 0,1 seconds (norm is 0,07-0,10 seconds). It can be concluded that the following process occurs normally in the cardiac atria:

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ECG analysis of the patient shows that the T waves are positive in the second standard limb lead and their amplitude and duration is normal. The conclusion can be made that the following process occurs normally in the patient’s ventricles:

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In the process of an experiment, vascular resistance to the blood flow was measured in the different areas of circulatory system. The highest resistance was detected in the:

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ECG of the patient shows increased duration of the QRS complex. What is the most likely cause?

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A 48-year-old man is unconscious. He has a history of several syncopal episodes with convulsions. ECG shows deformed QRS complexes unconnected with P waves, atrial contractions are approximately 70/min., ventricular contractions 25-30/min. Name the type of arrhythmia in this case:

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A 67-year-oldmanwasdeliveredto the cardiology unit with complaints of periodical pain in the heart, dyspnea after even in significant physical exertion, cyanosis, and edemas. ECG revealed additional contractions of the heart ventricles. Name this type of rhythm disturbance:

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