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STEP-1 - ANATOMY - ENG - 1s

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Question 1

After a hand fracture the man has lost the ability to touch his little finger with the thumb on the affected hand. Examination of the palmar surface shows one of the palmar muscles to be atrophied. Name the affected muscle:

A
M. opponens policis
B
Mm. interossei
C
M. palmaris brevis
D
M. flexor digiti minimi
E
Mm. lumbricales
Question 1 Explanation: 
The opponens pollicis (opponens pollicis muscle, musculus opponens pollicis) is one of the four thenar muscles lying on the radial side of the palm. The opponens pollicis lies beneath the abductor pollicis brevis and lateral to the flexor pollicis brevis. Origin: the opponens pollicis originates from the flexor retinaculum and from the trapezium bone. Insertion: the opponens pollicis passes forwards and inserts onto the base of the first metacarpal bone. Action: to oppose the thumb. Innervation: median nerve.
Question 2

A doctor asked a patient to make a deep exhalation after a normal inhalation. What muscles contract during such exhalation?

A
Trapezius muscles
B
Diaphragm
C
Pectoral muscles
D
Abdominal muscles
E
External intercostal muscles
Question 2 Explanation: 
Abdominal deep breathing is one form of abdominal breathing.
Question 3

A patient has been brought into a surgical ward with an incised wound of the anterior surface of the shoulder in its lower one-third. Flexing function was disturbed in the shoulder and elbow joints, which is caused by the damage to the:

A
Biceps muscle of the arm
B
Deltoid muscle
C
Coracobrachial muscle
D
Triceps muscle of the arm
E
Anconeus muscle
Question 3 Explanation: 
The biceps (musculus biceps brachii; biceps brachii) - large muscle that lies on the front of the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow.
Question 4

A patient complains of acute pain attacks in the right lumbar region. During examination the nephrolithic obturation of the right ureter in the region between its abdominal and pelvic segments has been detected. What anatomical boundary exists between those two segments?

A
Linea arcuata
B
Linea semilunaris
C
Linea terminalis
D
Linea inguinalis
E
Linea transversa
Question 4 Explanation: 
The linea terminalis or innominate line consists of the pectineal line (pecten pubis), the arcuate line, the pubic crest, the sacral ala, and the sacral promontory.
Question 5

During a surgery for femoral hernia a surgeon operates within the boundaries of femoral trigone. What structure makes up its upper margin?

A
Arcus iliopectineus
B
Lig. lacunare
C
Fascia lata
D
Lig. inguinale
E
Lig. pectinale
Question 5 Explanation: 
The inguinal ligament (Poupart's ligament) or groin ligament, is a band running from the pubic tubercle to the anterior superior iliac spine. It forms the base of the inguinal canal through which an indirect inguinal hernia may develop.
Question 6

An obstetrician-gynecologist measures pelvis size of a pregnant woman. A caliper was used to measure the distance between the two iliac crests. What measurement of large pelvis was made?

A
Conjugata anatomica
B
Conjugata vera
C
Distantia cristarum
D
Distantia throchanterica
E
Distantia spinarum
Question 6 Explanation: 
Distantia cristarum is the distance between the most distant points of the iliac crests; it makes 28 cm on average.
Question 7

During examination of a patient a doctor should use anatomical division of anterior abdominal wall into regions for more precise diagnostics. How many such regions can abdomen be divided into?

A
5
B
6
C
7
D
9
E
8
Question 7 Explanation: 
The abdomen can also be divided into nine regions: 1) right hypochondriac/hypochondrium 2) epigastric/epigastrium 3) left hypochondriac/hypochondrium 4) right lateral 5) umbilical 6) left lateral 7) right inguinal 8) pubic 9) left inguinal
Question 8

Paronychia of the patient’s little finger was complicated with phlegmon of the hand and forearm. In this case the suppuration had spread through the:

 
A
Vagina tendinis m. flexor carpi radialis
B
Interfascial compartments
C
Vagina synovialis communis mm. flexorum
D
Canalis carpalis
E
Vagina tendinis m. flexor pollicis longi
Question 8 Explanation: 
The common synovial sheath for the flexor tendons or the ulnar bursa is a synovial sheath in the carpal tunnel. It contains tendons of the flexor digitorum superficialis and the flexor digitorum profundus, but not the flexor pollicis longus. The sheath which surrounds the Flexores digitorum extends downward about half-way along the metacarpal bones, where it ends in blind diverticula around the tendons to the index, middle, and ring fingers. It is prolonged on the tendons to the little finger and usually communicates with the mucous sheath of these tendons.
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STEP-1 - ANATOMY - ENG - 2s

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Question 1

A child diagnosed with purulent inflammation of the middle ear was brought to the otolaryngology department. The disease started with the inflammation of the nasopharynx. It was determined that the infection had reached the tympanic cavity through the eustachian tube that is located in the:

A
Canalis musculotubarius
Question 2

The patient’s pyramids of the medulla oblongata are damaged by tumor growth. As a result the conduction of nervous impulses will be impaired in the following pathway:

A
Tr. corticopontinus
B
Tr. corticospinalis
C
Tr. dentatorubralis
D
Tr. corticonuclearis
E
Tr. spinocerebellaris
Question 3

Histological specimen shows organ parenchyma to consist of lymphoid tissue that forms lymph nodules; the nodules are located diffusely and have a central artery. What anatomical structure has such morphological characteristics?

A
Tonsil
B
Red bone marrow
C
Thymus
D
Spleen
E
Lymph node
Question 4

A patient with periodontitis of the lower molar came to the doctor. It was determined that the inflammatory process spread to the lymph nodes. What lymph nodes were the first to be affected by the inflammatory process?

A
Anterior cervical nodes
B
Submandibular nodes
C
Facial nodes
D
Submental nodes
E
Lateral cervical nodes
Question 5

A soldier with explosion-caused trauma was delivered to a hospital. Examination revealed his tympanic membrane to be intact. What defense reflex prevented the tympanic membrane from rupturing?

A
Relaxation of m. tensor tympani
B
Relaxation of m. auricularis arterior
C
Contraction ofm. tensor tympani
D
Contraction of m. auricularis arterior
E
Relaxation of m. stapedins
Question 6

A man has an inguinal hernia. The hernial sac exits through the following opening:

A
Linea alba
B
Anulus profundus canalis inguinalis
C
Anulus superficialis canalis inguinalis
D
Foramen suprapiriforme
E
Anulus femoralis
Question 7

A patient has a tumor of the eyesocket tissues behind the eyeball. Disruption of accomodation and pupil constriction is observed. What anatomical structure is damaged?

A
Ganglion ciliare
B
N. lacrimalis
C
N. opticus
D
N. trochlearis
E
N. nasociliaris
Question 8

In the course of an experiment thalamocortical tracts of an animal were cut. What type of sensory perception remained intact?

A
Olfactory
B
Visual
C
Exteroreceptive
D
Auditory
E
Nociceptive
Question 9

A patient has damaged spinal cord white matter in the middle area of the posterior white column, disrupted proprioceptive sensibility of the lower limb joints andmuscles. What fibers are affected?

A
Tr. spinothalamicus lateralis
B
Fasciculus cuneatus
C
Fasciculus gracilis
D
Tr. spinocerebellaris posterior
E
Tr. spinocerebellaris anterior
Question 10

A 64-year-old woman presents with disturbed fine motor function of her fingers, marked muscle rigidity, and tremor. The neurologist diagnosed her with Parkinson’s disease. What brain structures are damaged resulting in this disease?

A
Red nuclei
B
Reticular formation
C
Cerebellum
D
Substantia nigra
E
Thalamus
Question 11

During experiment a part of the brain was extracted, which resulted in asynergy and dysmetria development in the test animal. What part of the brain was extracted in the animal?

A
Mesencephalon
B
Cerebellum
C
Parietal lobe
D
Frontal lobe
E
Reticulum
Question 12

During surgery performed in abdominal cavity a surgeon located the ligament of liver stretching from the anterior abdominal wall (navel) to the inferior surface of liver. What ligament is it?

A
Falciform ligament of the liver
B
Venous ligament of the liver
C
Round ligament of the liver
D
Triangular ligament of the liver
E
Coronary ligament of the liver
Question 13

A patient complains of pain in the upper umbilical region. On palpation there is a mobile painful intestine. What intestine is being palpated by the doctor?

A
Duodenum
B
Sigmoid colon
C
Jejunum
D
Ileum
E
Transverse colon
Question 14

After an X-ray examination of the tuberculosis clinic patient, he was diagnosed with tumor of the right lung. During operation the surgeon removed the middle lobe of the patient’s right lung. This lobe includes:

A
Segmentum laterale et segmentum mediale
B
Segmentum anterius et segmentum apicale
C
Segmentum lingualare superius et inferius
D
Segmentum basale anterius et posterius
E
Segmentum apicale (superius) et segmentum basale mediale
Question 15

A surgeon has to find the common hepatic duct during operative intervention for treatment of concrements in the gall ducts. The common hepatic duct is located between the leaves of:

A
Hepatogastric ligament
B
Hepatoduodenal ligament
C
Venous ligament
D
Hepatorenal ligament
E
Round ligament of liver
Question 16

A laboratory experiment on a dog was used to study central parts of auditory system. One of the mesencephalon structures was destroyed. The dog has lost the orienting response to auditory signals. What structure was destroyed?

A
Red nucleus
B
Inferior colliculi of corpora quadrigemina
C
Superior colliculi of corpora quadrigemina
D
Reticular formation nuclei
E
Substantia nigra
Question 17

A 35-year-old man has been delivered into a surgical ward with a suppurating wound in the neck, anterior to the trachea (previsceral space). If a surgical operation is not performed urgently, there is a risk of infection spreading to the:

A
Thoracic cavity - anterior mediastinum
B
Thoracic cavity - posterior mediastinum
C
Retrovisceral space
D
Interaponeurotic suprasternal space
E
Thoracic cavity - middle mediastinum
Question 18

A patient complains of pain in the right lateral abdomen. Palpation revealed adense, immobile, tumor-like formation. Thetumor is likely to be found in the followingpart of the digestive tube:

A
Colon sigmoideum
B
Colon descendens
C
Colon transversum
D
Caecum
E
Colon ascendens
Question 19

When playing a child received a hit to the presternum region. As a result of this trauma an organ located behind the presternum was damaged. Name this organ:

A
Heart
B
Thymus
C
Larynx
D
Thyroid gland
E
Pericardium
Question 20

Doctors make mostly radial incisions during mammary gland surgery. What particulars of anatomical organization make such surgical technique preferable?

A
Lobe bases radiate from nipples
B
Lobe apexes converge towards nipples
C
Transversal position of gland lobes
D
Vertical position of gland lobes
Question 21

A specimen of a parenchymal organ shows poorly delineated hexagonal lobules surrounding a central vein, and the interlobular connective tissue contains embedded triads (an artery, a vein and anexcretory duct). What organ is it?

A
Thyroid
B
Spleen
C
Pancreas
D
Thymus
E
Liver
Question 21 Explanation: 
The "classic" liver lobule is the sixsided polyhedral prism with portal triads (hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct) at each of the corners.
Question 22

As a result of a continuous chronic encephalopathy a patient has developed spontaneous motions and disorder of torsomuscle tone. These are the symptoms of the disorder of the following conduction tract:

A
Tractus corticospinalis
B
Tractus tectospinalis
C
Tractus spinothalamicus
D
Tractus rubrospinalis
E
Tractus corticonuclearis
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STEP-1 - ANATOMY - ENG - 3s

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Question 1

Investigation of an isolated cardiac myocyte determined that it does not generate excitation impulses automatically, which means this cardiac myocyte was obtained from the following cardiac structure:

A
Atrioventricular node
B
Sinoatrial node
C
Ventricles
Question 2

After a case of common cold the patient developed numbness of the right side of theface. Examination revealed disturbed pain and thermal sensitivity in the right half of the face. What nerve was damaged?

A
Glossopharyngeal
B
Hypoglossal
C
Trigeminal
D
Facial
E
Vagus
Question 3

A boxer had sustained a blow to the left parotid area, after which he developed paralysis of the facial muscles on this side. What nerve had been damaged?

A
Mandibular
B
Facial
C
Lesser petrosal
D
Ophthalmic
E
Maxillary
Question 4

An injured person with wound of the anterior cervical region presents with hemorrhage. The outflowing blood is dark. What vessel is damaged?

A
V. jugularis anterior
B
A. carotis externa
C
V. jugularis interna
D
V. jugularis externa
E
A. thyroidea superior
Question 5

During cholecystectomy besides a. cystyca another artery was pulled into the ligature. Ligation of this artery resulted in right-sided necrosis of the liver which led to the death of the patient. What artery was mistakenly ligated along with a. cystyca?

A
Ramus sinister a. hepatica propria
B
Ramus dexter a. hepatica propria
C
A. hepatica communis
D
A. pancreato-duodenalis superior
Question 6

A woman suffers from tonsillitis complicated with retropharyngeal abscess that is localized in the spatium retroviscerale. In this case the suppurative process can spread to the:

A
Spatium interscalenum
B
Spatium pretracheale
C
Mediastinum posterius
D
Spatium interaponeuroticum suprasternale
E
Mediastinum anterius
Question 7

An oncology patient is to undergo a surgery on the descending colon. Name the main source of blood supply to this organ:

A
Inferior mesenteric artery
B
Celiac trunk
C
Middle colic artery
D
Splenic artery
E
Superior mesenteric artery
Question 8

A specimen shows an organ covered with connective tissue capsule with trabeculae radiating inward the organ. The organ’s cortex contains lymph nodules; there are medullary cords made of lymphoid cells. What organ is under study?

A
Spleen
B
Red bone marrow
C
Tonsils
D
Lymph node
E
Thymus
Question 9

A patient with suspected necrosis of the upper abdominal cavity organs was delivered to a surgical department. This condition is associated with acute circulatory disturbance of the following vessel:

A
Truncus coeliacus
B
A. mesenterica superior
C
A. renalis
D
A. mesenterica inferior
E
A. iliaca communis
Question 10

After a case of cold the patient developed a lacrimation disorder. This disorder was caused by functional disturbance of the following autonomic ganglion:

A
Submandibular ganglion
B
Otic ganglion
C
Sublingual ganglion
D
Ciliary ganglion
E
Pterygopalatine ganglion
Question 11

The brain trauma unit received a patient with damaged greater wing of the sphenoid bone. The fracture line crosses the spinous foramen of the sphenoid. What vessel was damaged?

A
Posterior deep temporal artery
B
Superficial temporal artery
C
Anterior deep temporal artery
D
Middle meningeal artery
E
Lateral pterygoid artery
Question 12

Angiocardiography of a 60-year old man revealed constriction of the vessel located in the left coronary sulcus of his heart. Name this pathological vessel:

A
V. cordis parva
B
Ramus circumflexus
C
Ramus interventricularis anterior
D
Ramus interventricularis posterior
E
A. coronaria dextra
Question 13

Parenchyma of an organ is composed of pseudounipolar neurons localized under the capsule of connective tissue. Central place belongs to nerve fibers. Name this organ:

A
Intramural ganglion
B
Spinal ganglion
C
Sympathetic ganglion
D
Nerve trunk
E
Spinal cord
Question 14

A traumatology unit has received a patient with a wrist trauma and a clinical presentation of the damage to the nerve that passes through the carpal tunnel. Name this nerve:

A
N. musculocutaneus
B
N. radialis
C
N. medianus
D
N. axillaris
E
N. ulnaris
Question 15

A patient has been found to have a marked dilatation of the saphenous veins in the region of anterior abdominal wall around the navel. This is symptomatic of pressure increase in the following vessel:

A
V. cava superior
B
V. portae hepatis
C
V. mesenterica inferior
D
V. mesenterica superior
E
V. cava inferior
Question 16

Due to trauma the patient presents with disturbed function of the parotid gland. What nerve ensures its secretion function?

A
N. petrosus major
B
N. petrosus minor
C
N. petrosus profundus
D
N. auricularis minor
E
N. auricularis major
Question 17

During appendectomy a patient had the a. appendicularis ligated. This vessel branches from the following artery:

A
A. sigmoidea
B
A. Ileocolica
C
A. mesenterica inferior
D
A. colica dextra
E
A. colica media
Question 18

A patient presents with dilated blood vessels of the anterior medial surface of the lower leg. This condition resulted from the dilation of the following blood vessel:

A
V. saphena parva
B
V. poplitea
C
V. saphena magna
Question 19

After a trauma the man has lost skin sensitivity on the lateral surface of his forearm. What nerve of the brachial plexus provides sensitivity of the affected area?

A
N. musculocutaneus
B
N. radialis
C
N. axillaris
D
N. medianus
E
N. ulnaris
Question 20

A patient has disturbed blood supply to the anterior papillary muscle of the left ventricle. What cardiac artery supplies this muscle with blood?

A
A. coronaria dextra
B
Ramus interventricularis posterior
C
Ramus interventricularis anterior
D
Ramus circumflexus
E
Ramus marginalis
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