Physiology Quizzes

Physiology 1 – Excitable tissues

Curariform substances introduced into a human body cause the relaxation of all skeletal muscles. What changes in the neuromuscular synapse cause this phenomenon?

Correct! Wrong!

It is required to evaluate the level of tissue excitability. For this purpose one should determine:

Correct! Wrong!

In course of an experiment there has been an increase in the nerve conduction velocity. This may be caused by an increase in the concentration of the following ions that are present in the solution around the cell:

Correct! Wrong!

When measuring total muscle action potential it was revealed that it was subject to the power-law relationship. The reason for this is that individual muscle fibers differ in:

Correct! Wrong!

Microelectrode analysis of nerve fiber biolectrical activity revealed, that its membrane potential equals 90 mV. Its initial rest potential was 85 mV. What process occurs in this case?

Correct! Wrong!

What kind of muscle contraction occurs in an upper limb during an attempt to lift a load beyond one’s strength?

Correct! Wrong!

Microelectrode technique allowed to register a potential following ”all-or-none” law and capable of undecremental spreading. Specify this potential:

Correct! Wrong!

Poisoning caused by botulinum toxin that prevents calcium ions from entering axon nerve endings of motoneurons is life threatening because it can lead to

Correct! Wrong!

In the course of an experiment there has been increase in nerve conduction velocity. This may be caused by increase in concentration of the following ions that are present in the solution around the cell:

Correct! Wrong!

As a result of a mechanical injury an over 10 cm long portion of a peripheral nerve was damaged. This caused an impairment of the upper limb activity. The patient was offered nerve transplantation. What glial cells will participate in regeneration and provide the trophism of the injured limb?

Correct! Wrong!

During experiment a skeletal muscle is being stimulated with a series of electrical impulses. What type of muscular contraction will develop, if each following impulse occurs within the relaxation period after the previous single contraction of the muscle?

Correct! Wrong!

People, who for a long time remained in hypodynamic state, develop intense pain in the muscles after a physical exertion. What is the most likely cause of this pain?

Correct! Wrong!

A force generated by the muscle is not enough to lift a load. What type of muscle contraction occurs in this case?

Correct! Wrong!

Cell membrane rest potential changed from -85 to -90 mV. It can be caused by activation of the following cell membrane channels:

Correct! Wrong!

Physiology 2 – CNS

It has been experimentally proven that the excitation of the motor neurons of flexor muscles is accompanied by the inhibition of the motor neurons of extensor muscles. What type of inhibition underlies this phenomenon?

Correct! Wrong!

A man sitting with his eyes closed, undergoes electroencephalography. What rhythm will be recorded on the EEG if there is an audible signal?

Correct! Wrong!

Amale with a lesion of one of the CNS parts has asthenia, muscular dystonia, balance disorder. Which CNS part has been affected?

Correct! Wrong!

By the decarboxylation of glutamate in the CNS an inhibitory mediator is formed. Name it:

Correct! Wrong!

As a result of a craniocerebral injury a patient has a decreased skin sensitivity. What area of the cerebral cortex may be damaged?

Correct! Wrong!

An animal has an increased tonus of extensor muscles. This is the result of enhanced information transmission to the motoneurons of the spinal cord through the following descending pathways:

Correct! Wrong!

As a result of a mechanical injury an over 10 cm long portion of a peripheral nerve was damaged. This led to the impairment of the upper limb activity. The patient was offered nerve transplantation. What glial cells will participate in regeneration and provide the trophism of the injured limb?

Correct! Wrong!

After a craniocerebral injury a patient is unable to recognize objects by touch. What part of brain has been damaged?

Correct! Wrong!

As a result of a continuous chronic encephalopathy, a patient has developed spontaneous motions and a disorder of torso muscle tone. These are the symptoms of the disorder of the following conduction tract:

Correct! Wrong!

As a result of a craniocerebral injury, a patient has a decreased skin sensitivity. What area of the cerebral cortex is likely to be damaged?

Correct! Wrong!

During an animal experiment, surgical damage of certain brain structures has caused deep prolonged sleep. What structure is most likely to cause such condition, if damaged?

Correct! Wrong!

In a cat with decerebrate rigidity the muscle tone is to be decreased. This can be achieved by:

Correct! Wrong!

As a result of an injury, the integrity of the anterior spinal cord root was broken. Specify the neurons and their processes that had been damaged:

Correct! Wrong!

In an experiment a dog had been conditioned to salivate at the sight of food and a flash of light. After conditioning the reflex, the light was then paired with the bell. The dog didn’t start to salivate.What type of inhibition was observed?

Correct! Wrong!

A laboratory experiment on a dog was used to study central parts of auditory system. One of the mesencephalon structures was destroyed. The dog has lost the orienting response to auditory signals. What structure was destroyed?

Correct! Wrong!

In a cat with decerebrate rigidity the muscle tone is to be decreased. This can be achieved by:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient had a trauma that caused dysfunction of motor centres regulating activity of head muscles. In what parts of cerebral cortex can the respective centre normally be located?

Correct! Wrong!

In the course of an experiment thalamocortical tracts of an animal were cut. What type of sensory perception remained intact?

Correct! Wrong!

A patient has damaged spinal cord white matter in the middle area of the posterior white column, disrupted proprioceptive sensibility of the lower limb joints and muscles.What fibers are affected?

Correct! Wrong!

Parkinson’s disease is caused by disruption of dopamine synthesis. What brain structure synthesizes this neurotransmitter?

Correct! Wrong!

An experiment was aimed at testing flexor reflex in a spinal frog, which was initiated by simultaneous stimulation with isolated pre-threshold electrical impulses. The frequency of those impulses was such, that the reflex occurred. What process in the nerve centers can be observed during this experiment?

Correct! Wrong!

After a traffic accident a 36-year-old patient has developed muscle paralysis of the extremitis on the right, lost pain and thermal sensitivity on the left, and partially lost tactile sensitivity on both sides. What part of the brain is the most likely to be damaged?

Correct! Wrong!

Due to destruction of certain structures of the brainstem an animal has lost its orientation reflexes in response to strong light stimuli. What structures were destroyed?

Correct! Wrong!

After a craniocerebral injury a patient has lost the ability to recognize shapes of objects by touch (stereognosis). What area of cerebral cortex normally contains the relevant center?

Correct! Wrong!

Vestibular receptors of semicircular canals of an animal have been destroyed. What reflexes will disappear as a result?

Correct! Wrong!

A patient with injury sustained to a part of the central nervous system demonstrates disrupted coordination and movement amplitude, muscle tremor during volitional movements, poor muscle tone.What part of the central nervous system was injured?

Correct! Wrong!

Parkinson’s disease is caused by disruption of dopamine synthesis. What brain structure synthesizes this neurotransmitter?

Correct! Wrong!

During experiment a dog has developed conditioned digestive reflex in response to a sound stimulus. This conditioned reflex will not be exhibited anymore after the extirpation of the following areas of the cerebral hemispheres:

Correct! Wrong!

As a result of a continuous chronic encephalopathy a patient has developed spontaneous motions and disorder of torso muscle tone. These are the symptoms of the disorder of the following conduction tract:

Correct! Wrong!

In a cat with decerebrate rigidity the muscle tone is to be decreased. This can be achieved by:

Correct! Wrong!

Surface with an intact toad on it was inclined to the right. Tone of extensor muscles became reflectory higher due to the activation of the following receptors:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient with hypertension has developed headache, tinnitus, vomiting, high BP up to 220/160 mm Hg. On examination: facial asymmetry on the right, volitional mobility is absent, increased tendon reflexes and muscle tone of extremities on the right. What motor disorder of nervous system occurred in this case?

Correct! Wrong!

Examination of the patient with traumatic brain injury revealed that he has lost the ability to discern the movement of an object on the skin. What part of the cerebral cortex is damaged?

Correct! Wrong!

A 64-year-old woman presents with disturbed fine motor function of her fingers, marked muscle rigidity, and tremor. The neurologist diagnosed her with Parkinson’s disease. What brain structures are damaged resulting in this disease?

Correct! Wrong!

During experiment a part of the brain was extracted, which resulted in asynergy and dysmetria development in the test animal. What part of the brain was extracted in the animal?

Correct! Wrong!

A patient had a trauma that caused dysfunction of motor centers regulating activity of head muscles. These centers can normally be located in the following area of the cerebral cortex:

Correct! Wrong!

The dorsal root of the spinal nerve of a test animal was severed. What changes will occur in the innervation area?

Correct! Wrong!

Physiology 3 – ANS and hormones

An attack of tachycardia that occurred in a patient was stopped by pressing on his eyeballs. Which of the following reflexes underlies this phenomenon?

Correct! Wrong!

A 19-year-old male was found to have an elevated level of potassium in the secondary urine. These changes might have been caused by the increase in the following hormone level:

Correct! Wrong!

A 26-year-old woman at 40 weeks pregnant has been delivered to the maternity ward. Objectively: the uterine cervix is opened, but the contractions are absent. The doctor has administered her a hormonal drug to stimulate the labor. Name this drug:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient with signs of osteoporosis and urolithiasis has been admitted to the endocrinology department. Blood test revealed hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. These changes are associated with abnormal synthesis of the following hormone:

Correct! Wrong!

A 30-year-old female exhibits signs of virilism (growth of body hair, balding temples, menstrual disorders). This condition can be caused by the overproduction of the following hormone:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient who had been continuously taking drugs blocking the production of angiotensin II developed bradycardia and arrhythmia. A likely cause of these disorders is:

Correct! Wrong!

A 16-year-old female patient has fainted after quickly changing her body position from horizontal to vertical one. Which process from the ones listed below has caused the loss of consciousness in the first place?

Correct! Wrong!

In the course of an experiment adenohypophysis of an animal has been removed. The resulting atrophy of thyroid gland and adrenal cortex has been caused by deficiency of the following hormone

Correct! Wrong!

A patient complains of pain in the heart area during acute attack of gastric ulcer. What vegetative reflex can cause this painful feeling?

Correct! Wrong!

A fixed-run taxi passenger has a sudden and expressed attack of tachycardia. A doctor travelling by the same taxi has managed to slow down his heart rate by pressing upon the eyeballs and thus causing the following reflex:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient with signs of osteoporosis and urolithiasis has been admitted to the endocrinology department. Blood test has revealed hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. These changes are associated with abnormal synthesis of the following hormone:

Correct! Wrong!

When taking exams students often have dry mouth. The mechanism that causes this state results from the following reflexes:

Correct! Wrong!

Cardiac arrest occurred in a patient during a surgery of the small intestine. What regulatory mechamisms resulted in the cardiac arrest in this case?

Correct! Wrong!

Pupil dilation occurs when a person steps from a light room into a dark one. What reflex causes such a reaction?

Correct! Wrong!

A patient with signs of osteoporosis and urolithiasis has been admitted to an endocrinology department. Blood test revealed hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. These changes are associated with abnormal synthesis of the following hormone:

Correct! Wrong!

Prior to glucose utilization in cells it is transported inside cells from extracellular space through plasmatic membrane. This process is stimulated by the following hormone:

Correct! Wrong!

Emotional stress causes activation of hormon-sensitive triglyceride lipase in the adipocytes. What secondary mediator takes part in this process?

Correct! Wrong!

During regular check-up a child is detected with interrupted mineralization of the bones. What vitamin deficiency can be the cause?

Correct! Wrong!

Examination of a 42-year-old patient revealed a tumour of adenohypophysis. Objectively: the patient’s weight is 117 kg, he has moon-like hyperemic face, red blue striae of skin distension on his belly. Osteoporosis and muscle dystrophy are present. AP is 210/140 mm Hg. What is the most probable diagnosis?

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A 4-year-old child with hereditary renal lesion has signs of rickets; vitamin D concentration in blood is normal. What is the most probable cause of rickets development?

Correct! Wrong!

A 6-year-old child suffers from delayed growth, disrupted ossification processes, decalcification of the teeth. What can be the cause?

Correct! Wrong!

A 41-year-old man has a history of recurrent attacks of heartbeats (paroxysms), profuse sweating, headaches. Examination revealed hypertension, hyperglycemia, increased basal metabolic rate, and tachycardia. These clinical presentations are typical of the following adrenalpathology:

Correct! Wrong!

Atria of an experimental animal were superdistended with blood, which resulted indecreased reabsorption of Na+ and water in renal tubules. This can be explained by the influence of the following factor on kidneys:

Correct! Wrong!

For people adapted to high external temperatures profuse sweating is not accompanied by loss of large volumes of sodium chloride. This is caused by the effect the following hormone has on perspiratory glands:

Correct! Wrong!

Cardiac arrest occurred in a patient during a surgery of the small intestine. What regulatory mechamisms resulted in the cardiac arrest in this case?

Correct! Wrong!

Experimental stimulation of sympathetic nerve branches that innervate heart caused an increase in force of heart contractions because membrane of typical cardiomyocytes permitted an increase in:

Correct! Wrong!

Pupil dilation occurs when a person steps from a light room into a dark one. What reflex causes such a reaction?

Correct! Wrong!

A patient with signs of osteoporosis and urolithiasis has been admitted to an endocrinology department. Blood test revealed hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. These changes are associated with abnormal synthesis of the following hormone:

Correct! Wrong!

During removal of the hyperplastic thyroid gland of a 47-year-old woman, the parathyroid gland was damaged. One month after the surgery the patient developed signs of hypoparathyroidism: frequent convulsions, hyperreflexia, laryngospasm. What is the most likely cause of the patient’s condition?

Correct! Wrong!

On examination the patient presents with hirsutism, moon-shaped face, stretch marks on the abdomen. BP is 190/100 mm Hg, blood glucose is 17,6 mmol/l. What pathology is such clinical presentation characteristic of?

Correct! Wrong!

During regular check-up a child is determined to have interrupted mineralization of the bones. What vitamin deficiency can be the cause?

Correct! Wrong!

A 16-year-old girl fainted when she tried to quickly change her position from horisontal to vertical. What caused the loss of consciousness in the girl?

Correct! Wrong!

During the sports competition a boxer received a strong blow to the abdomen, which caused a knockout due to a brief drop in blood pressure. What physiological mechanisms are the cause of this condition?

Correct! Wrong!

Corticosteroid hormones regulate the adaptation processes of the body as a whole to environmental changes and ensure the maintenance of internal homeostasis. What hormone activates the hypothalamopituitary-adrenalaxis?

Correct! Wrong!

A 40-year-old woman on examination presents with intensified basal metabolic rate. What hormone present in excess leads to such condition?

Correct! Wrong!

A16-year-oldgirlpresentswithnohairon the pubis and in the armpits, her mammary glands are underdeveloped, no menstruations. What hormone imbalance can it be indicative of?

Correct! Wrong!

During removal of the hyperplastic thyroid gland of a 47-year-old woman, the parathyroid gland was damaged. One month after the surgery the patient developed signs of hypoparathyroidism: frequent convulsions, hyperreflexia, laryngospasm. What is the most likely cause of the patient’s condition?

Correct! Wrong!

On examination the patient presents with hirsutism, moon-shaped face, stretch marks on the abdomen. BP is 190/100 mm Hg, blood glucose is 17.6 mmol/L. What pathology is such clinical presentation characteristic of?

Correct! Wrong!

In an experiment it is necessary to assess neuromotor and muscle excitability. What value should be measured to make the assessment?

Correct! Wrong!

During the fight a man has received a strong blow to the upper anterior abdominal wall, which resulted in the cardiac arrest. What mechanism has led to the cardiac arrest in this case?

Correct! Wrong!

To stimulate the labor activity a parturient woman was prescribed a drug - a posterior pituitary hormone that does not affect the blood pressure. As the pregnancy progresses, the sensitivity to this hormone increases. Name the prescribed drug:

Correct! Wrong!

In human organism significant blood loss leads to decreased blood pressure, tachycardia, and weakness. Eventually the sensation of thirst appears. What hormone participates in the development of this sensation?

Correct! Wrong!

Physiology 4 – Organs of sences

A male working as a blacksmith has been tested for auditory acuity. The tests revealed 50% hearing loss in the lowfrequency range and a near-normal auditory acuity in the high-frequency range. This condition has been caused by the damage to the following structures of the auditory system:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient complains that at the bare mention of the tragic events that once occurred in his life he experiences tachycardia, dyspnea and an abrupt rise in blood pressure. What structures of the CNS are responsible for these cardiorespiratory reactions in this patient?

Correct! Wrong!

The receptors under study provide transfer of information to the cortex without thalamic involvement. Specify these receptors:

Correct! Wrong!

Surface with an intact toad on it was inclined to the right. Tone of extensor muscles became reflectory higher due to the activation of the following receptors:

Correct! Wrong!

When taking exams students often have dry mouth. The mechanism that causes this state results from the following reflexes:

Correct! Wrong!

A laboratory experiment on a dog was used to study central parts of auditory system. One of the mesencephalon structures was destroyed. The dog has lost the orienting response to auditory signals. What structure was destroyed?

Correct! Wrong!

When taking exams students often have dry mouth. The mechanism that causes this state results from the following reflexes:

Correct! Wrong!

Asoldierwithexplosion-causedtrauma was delivered to a hospital. Examination revealed his tympanic membrane to be intact. What defense reflex prevented the tympanic membrane from rupturing?

Correct! Wrong!

A patient demonstrates functional loss of nasal halves of the retinas. What area of visual pathways is affected?

Correct! Wrong!

During experiment a dog has developed conditioned digestive reflex in response to a sound stimulus. This conditioned reflex will not be exhibited anymore after the extirpation of the following areas of the cerebral hemispheres:

Correct! Wrong!

On examination the patient was determined to have strong, balanced, inert type of higher nervous activity according to Pavlov’s classification. What temperament according to Hippocrates is it?

Correct! Wrong!

A person with vitamin A deficiency develops twilight vision disturbance. Name the cells that fulfill this photoreceptor function:

Correct! Wrong!

A student, whose educational achievements throughout the semester were poor, feels emotionally tense during the final test. What is the primary cause that induced leading mechanism of emotional tension in this case?

Correct! Wrong!

During the prestart period an athlete develops increased frequency and force of cardiac contractions. These changes are caused by intensification of the following reflex responces:

Correct! Wrong!

A 25-year-old woman complains of visual impairment. Examination revealed disturbed eye accommodation, the pupil is dilated and unresponsive to light. What muscles are functionally disturbed in this case?

Correct! Wrong!

A person becomes less receptive to pain in physically or emotionally straining situations due to activation of:

Correct! Wrong!

Physiology 5  Blood

A 3-year-old boy with pronounced hemorrhagic syndrome doesn’t have antihemophilic globulin A (factor VIII) in the blood plasma. Hemostasis has been impaired at the following stage:

Correct! Wrong!

A pregnant woman underwent AB0 blood typing. Red blood cells were agglutinated with standard sera of the I and II blood groups, and were not agglutinated with the III group serum. What is the patient’s blood group?

Correct! Wrong!

A 46-year-old female is scheduled for a maxillofacial surgery. It is known that the patient is prone to high blood coagulation. What natural anticoagulant can be used to prevent blood clotting?

Correct! Wrong!

A 3-year-old child had eaten some strawberries. Soon he developed a rash and itching. What was found in the child’s leukogram?

Correct! Wrong!

A patient is diagnosed with hereditary coagulopathy that is characterised by factor VIII deficiency. Specify the phase of blood clotting during which coagulation will be disrupted in the given case:

Correct! Wrong!

When defining blood group according to the AB0 system, using salt solutions of monoclonal antibodies, agglutination didn’t occur with any of the solutions. What blood group is it?

Correct! Wrong!

In allergic diseases, a dramaic increase in basophilic leukocyte number in patients’ blood is observed. This phenomenon is due to the following basophil function:

Correct! Wrong!

A blood drop has been put into a test tube with 0,3% solution of NaCl. What will happen to erythrocytes?

Correct! Wrong!

Along with normal hemoglobin types there can be pathological ones in the organism of an adult. Name one of them:

Correct! Wrong!

A woman with the III (В), Rh- blood group gave birth to a child with the II (А) blood group. The child is diagnosed with hemolytic disease of newborn caused by rhesus incompatibility. What blood group and Rh can the father have?

Correct! Wrong!

During determining the blood group according to the AB0 system with salt solutions of monoclonal antibodies agglutination did not occur with any of the solutions.What blood group is it?

Correct! Wrong!

A patient, who has been suffering for a long time from intestine disbacteriosis, has increased hemorrhaging caused by disruption of posttranslational modification of blood-coagulation factors II, VII, IХ, and Х in the liver. What vitamin deficiency is the cause of this condition?

Correct! Wrong!

A 3-year-old child has eaten some strawberries. Soon he developed a rash and itching. What was found in the child’s leukogram?

Correct! Wrong!

Determining a patient’s blood group with monoclonal test-reagents revealed positive agglutination reaction to anti-A and antiB reagents, and negative reaction to anti-What blood group does this patient have?

Correct! Wrong!

A 59-year-old woman has been hospialized in a surgical ward due to exacerbation of chronic osteomyelitis of the left shin. Blood test: leukocytes - 15,0×109/l. Leukogram: myelocytes - 0%, metamyelocytes - 8%, stab neutrophils - 28%, segmented neutrophils - 32%, lymphocytes - 29%, monocytes - 3%. Such blood count would be called:

Correct! Wrong!

10 minutes after the beginning of heavy physical work a person demonstrates increase of erythrocyte number in blood from 4,0×1012/l to 4,5×1012/l. What is the cause of this phenomenon?

Correct! Wrong!

Blood group of a 30-year-old man has been determined before a surgery. The blood was Rhesus-positive. Agglutination did not occur with standard 0 (I), А (II), and В (III) serums. The blood belongs to the following group:

Correct! Wrong!

After implantation of a cardiac valve a young man systematically takes indirect anticoagulants. His state was complicated by hemorrhage. What substance content has decreased in blood?

Correct! Wrong!

A patient is diagnosed with hereditary coagulopathy that is characterised by factor VIII deficiency. Specify the phase of blood clotting during which coagulation will be disrupted in the given case:

Correct! Wrong!

A 37-year-old woman complains of headache, vertigo, troubled sleep, numbness of limbs. For the last 6 years she has been working at a gas-discharge lamp-producing factory in a lead-processing shop. Blood test findings: low hemoglobin and RBC level, serum iron concentration exceeds the norm by several times. Specify the type of anemia:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient, who has been suffering for a long time from intestine disbacteriosis, has increased hemorrhaging caused by disruption of posttranslational modification of blood-coagulation factors II, VII, IХ, and Х in the liver. What vitamin deficiency is the cause of this condition?

Correct! Wrong!

Lymphocytes and other cells of our body synthesize universal antiviral agents as a response to viral invasion. Name these proteinfactors:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient visited a dentist to extract a tooth. After the tooth had been extracted, bleeding from the tooth socket continued for 15 minutes. Anamnesis states that the patient suffers from active chronic hepatitis. What phenomenon can extend the time of hemorrhage?

Correct! Wrong!

Human red blood cells contain no mitochondria. What is the main pathway for ATP production in these cells?

Correct! Wrong!

A 60-year-old man suffering from chronic hepatitis frequently observes nasal and gingival hemorrhages, spontaneous hemorrhagic rashes on the skin and mucosa. Such presentations result from:

Correct! Wrong!

A 3-year-old boy with pronounced hemorrhagic syndrome has no antihemophilic globulin A (factor VIII) in the blood plasma. Hemostasis has been impaired at the following stage:

Correct! Wrong!

A woman with the III (В), Rh (-) blood group gave birth to a child with the II (А) blood group. The child is diagnosed with hemolytic disease of newborn caused by rhesus incompatibility. What blood group and Rh does the father have?

Correct! Wrong!

Blood test of an athlete shows the following: erythrocytes - 5,5 · 1012/l, hemoglobin - 180 g/l, leukocytes - 7 · 109/l, neutrophils - 64%, basophils - 0,5%, eosinophils - 0,5%, monocytes - 8%, lymphocytes - 27%. These values primarily indicate the stimulation of:

Correct! Wrong!

During acute hemorrhage the body loses not only fluid but also electrolytes. What substance solution can be used as a simple blood substitute?

Correct! Wrong!

In the process of hemoglobin catabolism iron is released and then as a part of special transport protein is returned to the bone marrow, to be used again for hemoglobin synthesis. Name this transport protein:

Correct! Wrong!

A 25-year-old woman at her third pregnancy with impending miscarriage was brought to the hospital. What combination ofRh-factorofthemotherandthefetuscan be the cause of this condition?

Correct! Wrong!

A woman has lost a lot of blood during the childbirth. Her blood group needs to be determined. Erythrocyte agglutination occurred with standard serums 0 (I) and А (II) and did not occur with standard serum B (III). What blood group does this woman have?

Correct! Wrong!

Physiology 6 – Cardiovascular system

During the fight, a man had a cardiac arrest due to the strong blow to the upper region of the anterior abdominal wall. Which of the following mechanisms has led to the cardiac arrest?

Correct! Wrong!

A 35-year-old male developed acute heart failure while running for a long time. What changes in the ionic composition can be observed in the cardiac muscle?

Correct! Wrong!

ECG of a patient displays an abnormally long R wave (up to 0,18 s). This is caused by a decrease in the conduction velocity of the following heart structures:

Correct! Wrong!

During ventricular systole, the cardiac muscle does not respond to additional stimulation because it is in the phase of:

Correct! Wrong!

As a result of a home injury, a patient suffered a significant blood loss, which led to a fall in blood pressure. Rapid blood pressure recovery after the blood loss is provided by the following hormones:

Correct! Wrong!

A sportsman spontaneously held breath for 40 seconds,which resulted in an increase in heart rate and systemic arterial pressure. Changes of these indicators are due to activation of the following regulatory mechanisms:

Correct! Wrong!

An animal experiment is aimed at studying the cardiac cycle. All the heart valves are closed. What phase of the cycle is characterized by this status?

Correct! Wrong!

Experimental stimulation of the sympathetic nerve branches that innervate the heart caused an increase in force of heart contractions because the membrane of typical cardiomyocytes permitted an increase in:

Correct! Wrong!

Electrocardiogram analysis demonstrates that cardiac cycle of a human equals 1 second. It means that heart rate per minute equals:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient with hypertensic crisis has increased content of angiotensin II in blood. Angiotensin pressor effect is based on:

Correct! Wrong!

During ventricular systole the cardiac muscle does not respond to additional stimulation because it is in the phase of:

Correct! Wrong!

Electrocardiogram of a young man reveals deviation of his electrical axis of heart to the left. This phenomenon can be caused by:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient complains of palpitations after stress. Pulse is 104/min., P-Q=0,12 seconds, there are no changes in QRS complex. What type of arrhythmia does the patient have?

Correct! Wrong!

A patient with hypertensic crisis has increased contentof angiotensinII in blood. Angiotensin pressor effect is based on:

Correct! Wrong!

In an elderly person the change in heart force and vessels physical properties were detected; they can be clearly observed on graphic recording of carotid pulse waves. What method was applied?

Correct! Wrong!

A patient has insufficient blood supply to the kidneys, which caused the development of pressor effect due to the constriction of arterial resistance vessels. This is the result of the vessels being greately affected by the following substance:

Correct! Wrong!

A 67-year-old patient complains of periodic heartache, dyspnea during light physical activities. ECG reveals extraordinary contractions of heart ventricles. Such arrhythmia is called:

Correct! Wrong!

Investigation of an isolated cardiac myocyte determined that it does not generate excitation impulses automatically, which means this cardiac myocyte was obtained from the following cardiac structure:

Correct! Wrong!

Due to blood loss the circulating blood volume of a patient decreased. How will it affect the blood pressure in this patient?

Correct! Wrong!

A 16-year-old girl fainted when she tried to quickly change her position from horisontal to vertical. What caused the loss of consciousness in the girl?

Correct! Wrong!

The patient’s ECG shows that in the second standard lead from the extremities the P waves are positive, their amplitude is 0,1 mV (norm is 0,05-0,25 mV), duration 0,1 seconds (norm is 0,07-0,10 seconds). It can be concluded that the following process occurs normally in the cardiac atria:

Correct! Wrong!

ECG analysis of the patient shows that the T waves are positive in the second standard limb lead and their amplitude and duration is normal. The conclusion can be made that the following process occurs normally in the patient’s ventricles:

Correct! Wrong!

In the process of an experiment, vascular resistance to the blood flow was measured in the different areas of circulatory system. The highest resistance was detected in the:

Correct! Wrong!

ECG of the patient shows increased duration of the QRS complex. What is the most likely cause?

Correct! Wrong!

A 48-year-old man is unconscious. He has a history of several syncopal episodes with convulsions. ECG shows deformed QRS complexes unconnected with P waves, atrial contractions are approximately 70/min., ventricular contractions 25-30/min. Name the type of arrhythmia in this case:

Correct! Wrong!

A 67-year-oldmanwasdeliveredto the cardiology unit with complaints of periodical pain in the heart, dyspnea after even in significant physical exertion, cyanosis, and edemas. ECG revealed additional contractions of the heart ventricles. Name this type of rhythm disturbance:

Correct! Wrong!

Physiology 7  Respiratory system

To assess the effectiveness of breathing in patients, the indicator of functional residual capacity is used. It includes the following volumes:

Correct! Wrong!

Anatomical dead space is the portion of the air that is left in the airways after expiration. The reduction of the anatomical dead space is typical for the following situation:

Correct! Wrong!

Analysis of the experimental spirogram of a 55-year-old person revealed a decrease in tidal volume and respiratory amplitude compared to the situation of ten years ago. The change in these indicators is caused by:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient has increased thickness of alveolar-capillary membrane caused by a pathologic process. The direct consequence will be reduction of the following value:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient has a traumatic injury of sternocleidomastoid muscle. This has resulted in a decrease in the following value:

Correct! Wrong!

When studying the signs of pulmonary ventilation, reduction of forced expiratory volume has been detected.What is the likely causeof this phenomenon?

Correct! Wrong!

A female patient, having visited the factory premises with lots of dust in the air for the first time, has got cough and burning pain in the throat. What respiratory receptors, when irritated, cause this kind of reaction?

Correct! Wrong!

A patient has the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve shifted to the left. What blood changes induce this condition?

Correct! Wrong!

Electrical activity of neurons is being measured. They fire prior to and at the beginning of inhalation. Where are these neurons situated?

Correct! Wrong!

A doctor asked a patient to make a deep exhalation after a normal inhalation. What muscles contract during such exhalation?

Correct! Wrong!

A patient suffers from disrupted patency of the airways at the level of small and medium-sized bronchial tubes. What changes of acid-base balance can occur in the patient?

Correct! Wrong!

A patient demonstrates sharp decrease of pulmonary surfactant activity. This condition can result in:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient has a traumatic injury of sternocleidomastoid muscle. This has resulted in a decrease of the following value:

Correct! Wrong!

During recording of a spirogram a patient calmly exhaled. How do we call the volume of air remaining in the lungs?

Correct! Wrong!

A patient demonstrates sharp decrease of pulmonary surfactant activity. This condition can result in:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient has a traumatic injury of sternocleidomastoid muscle. This has resulted in a decrease of the following value:

Correct! Wrong!

During recording of a spirogram a patient calmly exhaled. How do we call the volume of air remaining in the lungs?

Correct! Wrong!

Water affects the mucosa of lower nasal passages resulting in diving reflex. This responce manifests itself as:

Correct! Wrong!

During training session in the laboratory the students were performing spirography on themselves. What indicator CANNOT be measured with this method?

Correct! Wrong!

During ascent into mountains a person develops increased respiration rate and rapid heart rate. What is the cause of these changes?

Correct! Wrong!

A person has increased pulmonary ventilation due to physical exertion. What indicator of external respiration will be significantly increased compared to the resting state?

Please select 2 correct answers

Correct! Wrong!

Physiology 8 – Digestive system

A patient has normally coloured stool including a large amount of free fatty acids. The reason for this is a disturbance of the following process:

Correct! Wrong!

Due to the blockage of the common bile duct (which was radiographically confirmed), the biliary flow to the duodenum was stopped.We should expect the impairment of:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient has a critical impairment of protein, fat and hydrocarbon digestion. Most likely it has been caused by low secretion of the following digestive juice:

Correct! Wrong!

A 35-year-old man with peptic ulcer disease has undergone antrectomy. After the surgery secretion of the following gastrointestinal hormone will be disrupted the most:

Correct! Wrong!

When investigating human saliva it is necessary to assess its hydrolytic properties. What substance should be used as a substrate in the process?

Correct! Wrong!

A patient is diagnosed with chronic atrophic gastritis attended by deficiency of Castle’s intrinsic factor. What type of anemia does the patient have?

Correct! Wrong!

Protective function of saliva is based on several mechanisms, including the presence of enzyme that has bactericidal action and causes lysis of complex capsular polysaccharides of staphylococci and streptococci. Name this enzyme:

Correct! Wrong!

Patients with bile duct obstruction typically present with inhibited blood clotting and develop hemorrhages due to insufficient assimilation of vitamin:

Correct! Wrong!

Stool test detects in the patients feces a large amount of undigested fats. This patient is the most likely to have disturbed secretion of the following enzymes:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient has undergone surgical removal of the pylorus. Decreased secretion of the following hormone can be expected:

Correct! Wrong!

Physiology 9 – Basal Metabolic Rate and Thermoregulation

The temperature in a production room is 36oC. Relative air humidity is 80%. Under these conditions the human body transfers heat mainly through:

Correct! Wrong!

Thermometry revealed that the temperature of the exposed skin is by 11,5o lower than the temperature of the adjacent areas covered with clothing from natural fabrics. The reason for this is that the clothes reduce the heat loss through:

Correct! Wrong!

In a young man during exercise, the minute oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide emission equalled to 1000 ml. What substrates are oxidized in the cells of his body?

Correct! Wrong!

The processes of heat transfer in a naked person at room temperature have been studied. It was revealed that under these conditions the greatest amount of heat is transferred by:

Correct! Wrong!

When measuring power inputs of a person by the method of indirect calorimetry the following results were obtained: oxygen consumption is 1000 ml and carbon dioxide production is 800 ml per minute. The person under examination has the following respiratory coefficient:

Correct! Wrong!

For people adapted to high external temperatures profuse sweating is not accompanied by loss of large volumes of sodium chloride. This is caused by the effect the following hormone has on the perspiratory glands:

Correct! Wrong!

For people adapted to high external temperatures profuse sweating is not accompanied by loss of large volumes of sodium chloride. This is caused by the effect the following hormone has on perspiratory glands:

Correct! Wrong!

The processes of heat transfer in a naked person at room temperature have been studied. It was revealed that under these conditions the greatest amount of heat is transferred by:

Correct! Wrong!

A 6-year-old child suffers from delayed growth, disrupted ossification processes, decalcification of the teeth. What can be the cause?

Correct! Wrong!

In hot weather ventilators are often used to normalize the microclimate in the heated rooms. It leads to intensified heat transfer from the human body by means of:

Correct! Wrong!

A person is in a room with air temperature of 38oC and relative air humidity of 50%. What type of heat transfer ensures maintenance of constant body core temperature under these conditions?

Correct! Wrong!

Physiology 10 – Urinary system

Urine analysis has shown high levels of protein and erythrocytes in urine. This can be caused by the following:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient has insufficient blood supply to the kidneys, which has caused the development of pressor effect due to the constriction of arterial resistance vessels. This is the result of the vessels being greately affected by the following substance:

Correct! Wrong!

Due to the use of poorquality measles vaccine for preventive vaccination, a 1-year-old child has developed an autoimmune renal injury. The urine was found to contain macromolecular proteins. What process of urine formation has been disturbed?

Correct! Wrong!

As a result of a road accident a 37year-old female victim developed urinary incontinence. What segments of the spinal cord had been damaged?

Correct! Wrong!

Glomerular filtration of a person, who has been starving for a long time, has increased by 20%. The most likely cause of filtration changes in the given conditions is:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient has insufficient blood supply to the kidneys, which has caused the development of pressor effect due to constriction of arterial resistance vessels. This condition results from the vessels being strongly affected by the following substance:

Correct! Wrong!

Atria of an experimental animal were superdistended with blood, which resulted in decreased reabsorption of Na+ and water in renal tubules. This can be explained by the influence of the following factor on kidneys:

Correct! Wrong!

A patient has insufficient blood supply to the kidneys, which caused the development of pressor effect due to the constriction of arterial resistance vessels. This is the result of the vessels being greately affected by the following substance:

Correct! Wrong!

Glomerular filtration of a person, who has been starving for a long time, has increased by 20%. The most likely cause of filtration changes in the given conditions is:

Correct! Wrong!

Atria of a test animal were superdistended with blood, which resulted in decreased reabsorption of Na+ and water in renal tubules. This can be explained by the effect of the following factor on the kidneys:

Correct! Wrong!

A man presents with glomerular filtration rate of 180 ml/min., while norm is 125±25 ml/min. The likely cause of it is the decreased:

Correct! Wrong!

A woman has been limiting the amount of products in her diet to lose some weight. 3 months later she developed edemas and her diuresis increased. What dietary component deficiency is the cause of this?

Correct! Wrong!

 

 

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